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The Royal College of Psychiatrists Improving the lives of people with mental illness

Kaleidoscope April 2017

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BJPsych April 2017Read the Kaleidoscope Column in the BJPsych

April’s Kaleidoscope column in the British Journal of Psychiatry explores all the vices. Can you think of a physical sensation that might be either painful or pleasurable depending on your state of mind or body? My example, which I suspect is more innocent than yours, is the difference between holding a very cold drink in your hand on a hot summer’s day, and holding that same drink on an icy winter morning. Alliesthesia is the name for such a phenomenon – the same stimulus producing different responses - and Kaleidoscope investigates a paper on the topic with the provocative title that “the brain wants what the body needs”.

Moving swiftly on to cigarettes and coffee; both are ‘nootropics’ – that is they enhance cognitive functioning. Alfréd Rényi said that ‘a mathematician is a device for turning coffee into theorems’, and a new paper explores just how much coffee can perk up your cognition, but perhaps even more interesting is another reported study looking at the energy drink Red Bull. The authors did a clever experiment evaluating this, including diet Red Bull. The outcome was the diet version did very little: it’s sugar that gives you wings…

Finally, our eyes were drawn to a research paper from China entitled “sexy women can tempt men down the road of immorality”. I will let you make up your own mind if you concur with the inference of who is to blame for any bad boy behaviour. More importantly, perhaps, was another study looking at gender stereotypes held by children. At the age of 5, there was no difference between children in how they viewed other boys and girls, but by age 6 both boys and girls were more likely to ascribe the characteristic of ‘nice’ to pictures of other girls, and ‘brilliant’ (but less nice) to pictures of boys. By age 7, both genders (correctly) identified that girls tended to get the higher average grades in school, but when given the choice girls predominantly chose to play a game described as being for children who “try really, really hard”, whilst boys went for the one “for brilliant children”. The authors finish with “a sobering conclusion: many children assimilate the idea that brilliance is a male quality at a young age”. There is much work for us all to do; perhaps we can start at home.

Read the Kaleidoscope Column in the BJPsych and follow @TheBJPsych for the latest news and updates.

April's Kaleidoscope Monthly Quiz (True/False)

Q1: A trial of personalised risk letters to smokers increased attendance at smoking cessation clinics, but only appears to work for women.
A1: False. Against typical findings with such work, it was more effective with men.

Q2: “60-80% receptor occupancy” is the mantra for antipsychotics in schizophrenia; however neuroimaging data in older adults suggests they only need about 25-40% post-synaptic mesolimbic dopaminergic antagonism to be effective.
A2: True, and side effects occurred between 50-60%. Increased blood-brain-barrier permeability appears a possible factor.

Q3: A neuroimaging/neuromodulation trial has shown that the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, a key region for social cognition, is responsible for humans linking beautiful objects or people with the property of being ‘good’.
A3: True.

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